FIAT 131 Mirafiori Abarth: The Fiat 131 Mirafiori is a small/medium family car produced by the Italian car manufacturer, Fiat from 1974 to 1984. It was exhibited at 1974 Turin Motor Show. The 131 was the replacement for the successful Fiat 124, and available as a 2-door and 4-door saloon and 5-door estate. The Mirafiori was named after the Turin suburb where the cars were produced. Naming the car in this way marked a break with the former Fiat convention, established in the 1960s, of naming their mainstream models only with a three digit number, and it set the pattern for Fiat to adopt Anglo-American style car naming practice, with carefully chosen names for subsequent new models. The 131 was marketed as Fiat Brava in USA. Initially the Mirafiori was offered with 1.3 L and 1.6 L SOHC engines. Revisions were made in 1978 and 1981, and all models were produced until production ceased in 1984. The 131 was produced 1,513,800 units total in Italy. The Fiat 131 Abarth was a very successful rally car, winning the World Rally Championship three times: in 1977, 1978, and in 1980 with Markku Alen, Timo Salonen and Walter Röhrl at the wheel. The official "works" cars were sponsored by Italian airline Alitalia and bore their distinctive red, white and green livery. Construction and technology The Fiat 131 employed construction techniques and technologies typical of its day. The body was a unitary (monocoque) type, made of conventional steel. Designed and styled on the typical "three-box" design, with distinct boxes for the engine compartment, passenger compartment, and luggage compartment (boot) (US - trunk) - nonetheless, it was still a handsome designed motor car. The major mechanical components were also conventional and contemporary, but with some notable advances. In basic terms, the 131 employs a front engine, rear-wheel drive layout, whereby the engine is mounted in the front of the car, longitudinally in a north-south orientation. The gearbox is mounted directly behind the engine, and a tubular propeller shaft, under the transmission "tunnel", transmits the drive to a solid live rear axle. The engines were all straight-4 types, with a cast iron cylinder block and aluminium alloy cylinder head, containing either a single (SOHC) or double (DOHC) overhead camshaft, driven by a single rubber/kevlar toothed timing belt. Fuel supply was via a single Weber ADF twin-choke carburettor, fed from a boot (trunk) mounted steel fuel tank. Traditional contact breaker ignition systems were used, usually with Marelli distributors. The suspension system utilised fully independent front suspension, with MacPherson struts, track control arms and anti-roll bar (sway bar). The rear suspension was quite advanced (when using a solid live rear axle), in that the rear axle was controlled by double unequal length trailing arms and a panhard rod, with coil springs and direct acting dampers. This design proved far superior to many of its contempories, espicially with vehicle stability and handling. The braking system was also typical; the front brakes were disc brakes, using a solid (unvented) iron disc (rotor) and a single-piston sliding caliper. The rears were drum brakes, utilising leading and trailing shoe design operated by a dual piston fixed slave cylinder. They were operated hydraulically, with a tandem master cylinder assisted by a vacuum servo using two separate circuits. A rear mounted load sensing valve varied the bias of effort applied to the rear brakes, dependent on the load being carried (and also the pitch dynamics caused by braking effort and road levels). A centrally located floor mounted handbrake (parking brake, E-brake) operated on the rears using bowden cables. Series 1 Fiat 131 1st series Fiat 131 Abarth Fiat 131 Racing Seat 131 Estate: the estate version was badged as a Fiat outside Spain Initially the 131 came with 1297 cc or 1585 cc straight-4 sohc engine. The first series was available with two body styles; saloon and estate Familiare. There were two trim levels - the basic "131" and the better appointed "131 S" or "131 Special", which could be distinguished from the base model by its 4 circular headlamps, chrome window surrounds and different instrumentation. In 1976 500 examples of Fiat 131 Abarth Rallye were built for homologation purposes. This car included many techical modifications such as 16-valve dohc engine producing 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW), Kugelfischer mechanical fuel injection and independent rear suspension. In race specifications the engine produced around 215 PS (212 hp/158 kW) in season 1977. Model Displacement Engine type Power Mirafiori 1297 cc straight-4 sohc 65 PS (64 hp/48 kW) Mirafiori 1585 cc straight-4 sohc 75 PS (74 hp/55 kW) Familiare 1297 cc straight-4 sohc 65 PS (64 hp/48 kW) Familiare 1585 cc straight-4 sohc 75 PS (74 hp/55 kW) Abarth 1995 cc straight-4 dohc 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW) Series 2 The Mirafiori got a minor facelift in 1978. New dohc, or "Twin Cam" (TC) engines arrived and these models were badged as SuperMirafiori. Biggest change exterior wise was larger rectangular shaped front lights, new bumpers, new bigger rear lights and new interior trim. In 1978 the 2-door sporting version Racing (Mirafiori Sport in the UK) with 115 PS (113 hp/85 kW) dohc engine, was launched. This car had four round headlights (the inner headlights being smaller than the outer ones (unlike any other mirafiori model produced)), different grille, spoilers & extended wheel arches, and a short-throw 5 speed gearbox. The Racing had top speed of 180 km/h (112 mph). Diesel versions also had four round headlights (equally sized). The Familiare (estate) was renamed as Panorama. Model Displacement Engine type Power Mirafiori 1301 cc straight-4 sohc 65 PS (64 hp/48 kW) SuperMirafiori 1301 cc straight-4 dohc 78 PS (77 hp/57 kW) SuperMirafiori 1585 cc straight-4 dohc 96 PS (95 hp/71 kW) Panorama 1301 cc straight-4 sohc 65 PS (64 hp/48 kW) Panorama 1585 cc straight-4 sohc 75 PS (74 hp/55 kW) Diesel 1995 cc straight-4 60 PS (59 hp/44 kW) Diesel 2445 cc straight-4 72 PS (71 hp/53 kW) Racing 1995 cc straight-4 dohc 115 PS (113 hp/85 kW) Series 3 Fiat 131 Volumetrico Abarth The 131 was updated again in 1981. Production of the Racing/Sport versions ceased, although these were sold well into 1982. The same 2.0 TC (twin cam) engine went to the SuperMirafiori. The car received a slightly updated interior (instruments, single-piece glovebox lid), whilst lower rubbing strips found their way onto all models up to CL specification. The SuperMirafiori received larger lower door cladding. Mechanically, some new sohc engines (1.4 & 1.6), new clutch, gearboxes and tweaked suspension were also introduced. In the same year was also introduced new sport version Volumetrico Abarth, with 2 litre engine equipped with Abarth designed supercharger. In 1983 the production of saloon version was discontinued but the estate named now as 131 Maratea was produced with two engine choices 2.0 TC (115 PS) and 2.5D (72 PS) until 1985 and replaced then with Regata Weekend. These last versions featured 4 round headlights and the by-now familiar 5-bar grille. Model Displacement Engine type Power Mirafiori 1367 cc straight-4 sohc 70 PS (69 hp/51 kW) Mirafiori CL 1585 cc straight-4 sohc 85 PS (84 hp/63 kW) SuperMirafiori 1367 cc straight-4 dohc 75 PS (74 hp/55 kW) SuperMirafiori 1585 cc straight-4 dohc 97 PS (96 hp/71 kW) SuperMirafiori 1995 cc straight-4 dohc 115 PS (113 hp/85 kW) Panorama 1301 cc straight-4 sohc 65 PS (64 hp/48 kW) Panorama 1995 cc straight-4 sohc 75 PS (74 hp/55 kW) Diesel 1995 cc straight-4 60 PS (59 hp/44 kW) Diesel 2445 cc straight-4 72 PS (71 hp/53 kW) Volumetrico Abarth 1995 cc straight-4 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW) Spanish twin 1980 blue SEAT 131, Béjar(Salamanca), España Up to 1982, Spanish SEAT cars were all exact re-badged twins of Fiat models. The Spanish version of the 131 was called the SEAT 131, and was sold and produced in Spain, but only in 4-door bodies. The SEAT factories also produced the estate version of the car (called 131 Panorama) for export purposes, but these were badged with Fiat emblems. Turkish twin Tofaş industries in Turkey also based their initial production on Fiat 131s built under Fiat license. 131-based models included the Murat 131, the Doğan and the Kartal (the estate). These vehicles enjoyed a very long production run and were later replaced by newer Fiat models. Other producers The Fiat Tofaş 131 was also produced in Egypt by El Nasr, on the basis of complete knockdown (CKD) kits since 1991 and in Ethiopia by Holland Car since 2006. Wikipédia Fotos de FIAT 131 Mirafiori Abarth em acção!